One size does not fit all….

When we image patients, radiation matters!


Making the correct diagnosis is the most important goal of medical imaging. 

A radiologist is a physician who is an expert in interpreting images of the body obtained with x-ray, fluoroscopy, ultrasound, CT (computed tomography) or MRI equipment. Choosing the most appropriate imaging exam involves a collaborative decision between the radiologist and the referring healthcare provider based on the patient’s suspected illness and the imaging resources available at the health care facility.


Let’s Image Gently® by:

  • using MRI or ultrasound when it is more likely to reveal the correct diagnosis than an imaging test like CT, fluoroscopy, or radiography that exposes the patient to ionizing radiation
  • when CT is the best way to make the correct diagnosis, using the lowest dose of radiation that will reliably produce diagnostic images

What is MRI?

Magnetic resonance imaging (MR or MRI) is a technique that uses a powerful magnet to look inside the body.  MRI does not expose the patient to ionizing radiation. An MRI examination usually takes a relatively long time (30 to 90 minutes), and requires that the patient stay very still for nearly the entire time to get the best images. Therefore, young children or others who are unable to stay still for this period of time are sedated or receive general anesthesia so that the MRI examination can be performed. MRI reveals detailed anatomy of many parts of the body and is especially useful for imaging of the brain, spine, heart, abdominal solid organs, bowel, bones, joints, and muscles (figures).


Examples of MR images of the brain, abdomen, heart and foot.


MRI Indications

Depending on the expertise and MRI equipment available at a particular institution, specific MRI scanning protocols are designed to acquire the best possible images of certain body parts and diseases.  A few of these indications are discussed below.



Patients with hydrocephalus (dilated fluid-filled ventricles in the brain) often undergo numerous brain CT examinations to determine if there has been any detrimental change in size of the ventricles in the setting of suspected ventriculoperitoneal shunt dysfunction. Very fast (<10 minute) brain MRI protocols have been designed as an alternative to CT so that the degree of hydrocephalus may be rapidly determined in children of all ages without the use of sedation or ionizing radiation.

Rapid brain MRI protocols are generally not appropriate when looking for intracranial hemorrhage, tumor, stroke, infectious disease, or a seizure focus.  When hydrocephalus is not the primary concern, a complete brain MRI should be ordered instead. These are better addressed by more traditional length examinations.


Tumor Diagnosis, Therapy Response Assessment & Surveillance

In many cases, tumors are initially diagnosed by CT or US.  MRI is then sometimes used to provide greater anatomic definition of the tumor and surrounding brain or other organ system or to characterize the type of tissue in the tumor. MRI is the imaging examination of choice for assessing tumor response to treatment (arrows in following figure) and for surveillance for recurrence of certain tumors, especially those of the brain, spinal cord, bone and muscle.


Inflammatory Bowel Disease

MRI is the preferred imaging examination for monitoring patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).  Inflammation of the bowel wall, abnormal connections between bowel loops, and infected fluid collections outside the bowel can be detected with MRI.  Abnormal peristalsis (motion of the bowel) can even be detected with a technique known as cine MRI.



Ultrasound is most often used as the initial imaging examination for children with suspected appendicitis.  When the ultrasound examination is inconclusive, computed tomography (CT) is often performed.  However, MRI is emerging as a viable alternative to CT for the evaluation of appendicitis (enlarged inflamed appendix shown by arrow in following figure) in children with an inconclusive ultrasound examination.


Musculoskeletal Infectious and Inflammatory Conditions

MRI is the preferred imaging examination for diagnosing infections of the bone, growth cartilage, and muscle.  While bone scintigraphy (nuclear medicine study) can also be used to diagnosis osteomyelitis, MRI better shows associated conditions such as septic arthritis and abscesses in and around bones and muscles that may require surgical drainage (arrows in figure below).

MRI is also very useful for demonstrating the extent of arthritis, such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and the extent of inflammation not due to infection in a setting such as juvenile dermatomyosis. This helps to guide treatment and monitor therapy response to anti-inflammatory drugs (see arrows in the following figures).


Tendon, Ligament, Cartilage and Bone Injury

Due to its excellent demonstration of different structures such as fat, blood vessels, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone and bone marrow, MRI is the preferred imaging examination to detect injury to these tissues (arrows in figure below).  The extent and severity of these injuries can be graded by MRI to assist in treatment planning by the orthopedic surgeon or sports medicine physician.

MRI is also especially good for detecting bone bruises and stress injuries that are not evident on radiographs (arrows in figure below).


Cardiac imaging

Cardiac MRI (CMR) is an ideal imaging examination for many patients with acquired and congenital heart disease. CMR images readily show the anatomy of the heart, the aorta, and adjacent structures, enables examination of cardiac function and blood flow and characterization of abnormalities in the heart muscle (myocardium) including wall motion. CMR is the most accurate imaging method for measuring cardiac chamber volumes and ejection fraction and therefore provides crucial information for surgical planning in patients with congenital heart disease. CMR is very helpful for examining patients with various types of cardiomyopathy or cardiac injury as characteristics of the cardiac muscle and muscle mass may be determined.

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with GBCA is often utilized as an adjunct to CMR exams as the technique is ideal for producing 3 dimensional reconstructions of cardiac anatomy.



Contrast Material for MRI examinations

Intravenous (IV) gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are used in many MRI examinations, particularly when there is concern for tumor, infectious/inflammatory disease, or vascular abnormality.  GBCAs improve the delineation of tumors, infected fluid collections, and inflamed soft tissues. GBCAs also enhance depiction of the arteries with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and veins with magnetic resonance venography (MRV).  GBCAs may also be injected into joints to better delineate intra-articular structures with MR arthrography.

Anaphylactoid or other serious adverse reactions to GBCAs are very rare.  Due to the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, renal insufficiency is a contraindication to the administration of certain linear GBCAs. This risk is lessened by using macrocyclic GBCAs. Please refer to the policies in place at your institution for recommendations regarding the use of GBCAs in patients with renal insufficiency. Deposition of GBCAs in the brain and other tissues is an area of current investigation, the possible detrimental effects of which are unknown at this time.

Sedation and General Anesthesia for MRI examinations

Many children, especially those less than 8 years of age, and even some adolescents and adults, are unable to remain still for the typical 30-90 minute duration of an MRI examination.  Therefore, sedation or general anesthesia is often required in these patients to obtain a diagnostic quality MRI examination uncompromised by motion artifact. There are possible cognitive deficits from sedation/anesthesia in children, especially with prolonged and recurrent exposure, that are still unclear. This issue should be considered when deciding about imaging strategies.


MRI Contraindications

  • Because MRI involves a strong magnetic field, certain metallic materials or devices may become hazardous projectiles, malfunction or cause artifacts that degrade image quality.
  • For safety, items that may become projectiles are never allowed into the MRI scanner room.
  • Some metallic items, such as braces, are safe but may cause artifacts that degrade image quality (see figure below).
  • Although exceptions exist, patients with pacemakers, defibrillators, and certain other electronic devices may be unable to undergo an MRI examination.


One size does not fit all…

Introduction –

One size does not fit all…
When using radiography during pediatric dental procedures remember:

  • Select x rays for individual’s needs, not merely as a routine
  • Use the fastest image receptor possible: E- or F-speed film or digital sensors
  • Collimate beam to area of interest
  • Always use thyroid collars
  • Child-size the exposure time
  • Use cone-beam CT when appropriate
  • Use dose cone-bean CT option if available and appropriate

So when we image, let us image gently: More is often not better.

Safety –

There are many different types of x-ray images (pictures) that can be taken of children in the dental office to assist in diagnosis. These include the panoramic and orthodontic (cephalometric) extraoral images, intraoral images such as bitewings and periapicals (little films that go inside the mouth) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). All of these dental images use ionizing radiation (x-rays), and therefore parents may be concerned about the increased cancer risk (because of the x-rays) to their children. The following provides information on the risks of dental images in relation to their benefits.
For a through discussion of the issue of radiation safety in dental imaging, read this article.

Guidelines and Resources –

Guidelines for Making Dental Radiographs (X rays):

Guidelines/statements on the use of dental Cone-beam CT

Cone Beam CT –

Cone-Beam Imaging

Cone-beam imaging is a form of advanced imaging that provides 3D views of the face and teeth. Recent advances of low-dose cone-beam CT option exposes the patient to less or equivalent radiation to commonly used dental imaging modalities.

For children, cone-beam imaging is occasionally used for orthodontic evaluation. More information about cone-beam imaging may be found at:

  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has posted an informational webpage on dental cone-beam computed tomography. On this webpage, the FDA is promoting the safe use of cone-beam computed tomography in dentistry, particularly in the pediatric population. Recommendations to parents, patients and health care providers to help reduce unnecessary radiation exposure from dental cone-beam computed tomography are also provided on this web page.
  • Clinical recommendations regarding use of cone beam computed tomography in orthodontics. Position statement by the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology
  • European Guidelines: Cone Beam CT for Dental and Maxillofacial Radiology (link to

The American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology (AAOMR) is a member of the image gently alliance. Please visit the AAOMR website at for more information on dental radiology.

Dental Professionals

Publications –

Council on Radiation Protection Program Area Committee 4 – Presentation from March 9, 2014. Used with the permission of Dr. Joel Gray and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement.

Enhancing Radiation Protection During Pediatric Imaging, Allan G. Farman; Oral Surgery, Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and, Oral Radiology , Vol. 117 No. 6, June 2014 (Access to this article provided by Elsevier as a courtesy to Image Gently.)
The Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging is comprised of over 80 imaging and health care organizations reaching over 500,000 professionals committed to imaging excellence and safety. The Dental Organizations that led this Safety in Dental Imaging Initiative are:

American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology (AAOMP)
American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology (AAOMR)
American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry
American Academy of Periodontology
American Association of Endodontists
American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
American Association of Orthodontists
American Association of Orthodontists – For Patients or Consumer
American Association of Public Health Dentistry
American Dental Association
American Dental Assistant Association
American Dental Hygienist Association
FDI World Dental Federation
International Association of Dento-Maxillo-FacialRadiology (IADMFR)

In appreciation to:

The Image Gently in Dentistry Steering Committee:

  • Anitha Potluri, BDS, DMD, MDsc
  • Joanna Douglass, BDS, DDS
  • Alan Farman, BDS, PhD, DSc
  • Joel Gray, PhD
  • Clarice Law, DMD, MS
  • Marty Levin, DMD
  • Evelyn Lucas-Perry, DDS, MPH
  • Anthony Palatta, DDS, EdD
  • Martin Palomo, DDS, MSD
  • Bob Pizzutiello, MS
  • David Smith, PhD
  • Stuart White, DDS, PhD
  • Gail Williamson, RDH, MS
  • Richard Valachovic, DMD, MPH
  • Greg Zeller, DDS, MS

Allan Lurie, DDS, PhD, Image Gently in Dentistry Past Chair
Marilyn J. Goske, MD, Alliance past co-Chair
Donald P. Frush, MD, Alliance co-Chair
Karen Schmitt, Interim Alliance Administrative Director
Shaniece Rigans, Alliance Administrative Director

Juan F. Yepes DDS, MD, MPH, FDS RCSEd, DrPH, Indiana University, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN and the Executive Committee of the AAOMR

Professor Keith Horner BChD, MSc, PhD, Odont Dr (hc), FDSRCPSGlasg, FRCR, DDR, School of Dentistry, Manchester, UK


One size does not fit all…

There’s no question: CT helps us save kids’ lives.

But when we image, radiation matters!

  • Children are more sensitive to radiation.
  • What we do now lasts their lifetimes.
  • So when we image, let’s image gently: More is often not better.

When CT is the right thing to do:

  • Child size the kVp and mA.
  • One scan (single phase) is often enough.
  • Scan only the indicated area.

Parent Information

Think-A-Head and Image Gently®

Think-A-Head on Children’s CT Scans
If kids hurt their heads, help families make informed decisions:

  • Know when an imaging test is (and is not) necessary
  • Explain why a head CT scan is (or is not) the right choice
  • Discuss the benefits as well as the risks of the scan
  • Child-size the CT radiation dose (where necessary)

Working Together to Take Care of Kids Who Hurt Their Heads

Head trauma occurs frequently in children. A CT (also called CAT) scan
may be necessary to diagnose your child’s condition. The results from the CT can be extremely helpful, including when they are normal.

CT uses x-rays, which are a type of ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation at doses much, much higher than those used in brain CT scans has a small risk of causing cancer. The risk of cancer at the much lower radiation levels used in a child’s brain CT examinations is many times smaller than at much higher radiation doses; this risk may be so low that it is zero (no risk at all). Even if a very small risk does exist, this risk is very small compared to the large benefit to your child from the valuable information in their CT scan. This information allows your child’s doctor to select the treatment that will result in the best possible care of your child.
The Image Gently Alliance is committed to providing information on X-ray imaging examinations, on radiation dose levels of patient imaging procedures, on what we understand about potential risks, on appropriate use of imaging in children, and on the practice of good patient care.

Think-A-Head and Image Gently®

The Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging is comprised of over nearly 100 imaging and health care organizations reaching over 1 million professionals committed to imaging excellence and safety. The organizations that led this Initiative are:

Parents –

How Can Doctors Decide Which Child Might Need a CT Scan

My Child has Hurt Their Head FAQs

Think-A-Head Campaign Q&A

Resources –

Identification of Children at Very Low Risk of Clinically-Important Brains Injuries after Head Trauma: A Prospective Cohort Study

WHO: Communicating Radiation Risks in Paediatric Imaging

ACR Appropriateness Criteria: Head Trauma

References –

Kuppermann N, Holmes JF, Dayan PS, et al. Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN). Identification of children at very low risk of clinically-important brain injuries after head trauma: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2009 Oct 3;374(9696):1160-70.

Nigrovic LE, Schunk JE, Foerster A, et al. Traumatic Brain Injury Group for the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. The effect of observation on cranial computed tomography utilization for children after blunt head trauma. Pediatrics. 2011 Jun;127(6):1067-73.

Dayan PS, Holmes JF, Atabaki S, et al. Traumatic Brain Injury Study Group of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN). Association of traumatic brain injuries with vomiting in children with blunt head trauma. Ann Emerg Med. 2014 Jun;63(6):657-65.

Dayan PS, Holmes JF, Hoyle J Jr, Atabaki S, Tunik MG, Lichenstein R, Miskin M, Kuppermann N; Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN). Headache in traumatic brain injuries from blunt head trauma. Pediatrics. 2015 Mar;135(3):504-12.

Dayan PS, Holmes JF, Schutzman S, et al. Traumatic Brain Injury Study Group of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN). Risk of traumatic brain injuries in children younger than 24 months with isolated scalp hematomas. Ann Emerg Med. 2014 Aug;64(2):153-62.

Lee LK, Monroe D, Bachman MC, et al. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Working Group of Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN). Isolated loss of consciousness in children with minor blunt head trauma. JAMA Pediatr. 2014 Sep;168(9):837-43

Nigrovic LE, Lee LK, Hoyle J, et al. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Working Group of Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN). Prevalence of clinically important traumatic brain injuries in children with minor blunt head trauma and isolated severe injury mechanisms. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012 Apr;166(4):356-61.


Image Gently® and Ultrasound

One size does not fit all…

When we image patients, radiation matters!

Let’s Image Gently® by:

  • Using ultrasound when possible.
  • Not using radiation for ultrasound examinations.
  • Using ultrasound as a strong opportunity to lower radiation dose in the imaging of children.
Protocols –


Low-dose CT is an effective way to diagnose or exclude appendicitis. Ultrasonography is another valuable tool.

When ultrasonography is used, a normal appendix may be seen in up to 50% of children with abdominal pain and the clinical question of appendicitis. Visualization of a normal appendix measuring less that 6 mm in diameter excludes appendicitis (figure 1). An enlarged appendix that does not compress is diagnostic of appenidicitis (figure 2). In those children in whom the appendix cannot be identified or with complications from appendicitis, observation by the doctor or CT is the next step. In some institutions, MRI is used for appendicitis.


Fluoroscopic enema is an effective way to diagnose, exclude, and treat intussusception (a condition in which a part of the bowel “telescopes” into another part of the bowel). The majority of children with clinically suspected intussusception do not have intussusception. There is no way for your doctor to diagnose intussusception because less than 30% of patients with intussusception have the typical findings of abdominal mass, colicky abdominal pain, and currant jelly stool. Ultrasonography is a reliable screening method for diagnosis and exclusion of intussusception (figure 3).


In children, diagnosis of empyema (infection around the lung) with CT is difficult. The wall of the lung (pleura) may not enhance after intravenous contrast administration (a material injected in the vein to see the orans better), and the contour of the collection may be the same as simple pleural effusion. On ultrasonograms, pleural loculations and debris-containing fluid (pleural effusion) are readily identified (figure 4).


One size does not fit all…

International Alliance Organizations –

Argentine Federation of Associations of Radiology, Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy
International Radiation Protection
Asian-Oceanic Society for
Paediatric Radiology
International Society of Radiographers and Radiologic Technologists
Asia-Oceania Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics
International Society of Radiology
Australian & New Zealand Society for Paediatric Radiology
Italian Association of Medical Physics
Australian Institute of Radiography
Italian Association of Radiographers
British Institute of Radiology
New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology
British Society of Paediatric Radiology
Portuguese Health Physics Society
College of Radiology, Academy of Medicine of Malaysia
Pediatric Society of Paraná – Brazil
European Academy of DentoMaxilloFacial Radiology
Radiation Protection Authority of Zimbabwe
European Federation of Radiographers Societies
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists
European Society of Paediatic Radiology
Sociedad Española de Protección Radiológica
FDI World Dental Federation
Sociediad Latino Americano de Radiologia Pediatrica
Federal Agency for Nuclear Control
Sociedad Mexicana De Radiologia E Imagen
Indian Society of Paediatric Radiology
Society and College of Radiographers
International Association of Dento-Maxillo Facial Radiology
Society of Radiographers of Trinidad and Tobago
International Atomic Energy Agency
Southeast Asia Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics
International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements
World Federation of Paediatric Imaging (WFPI)

Translations –



  • Click herefor a friendly message from The Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging
  • For the 2 page Medical Radiation Safety Brochure,please click here
  • For the 8 page Medical Radiation Safety Brochure, please click here

Thanks to volunteers:

  • Melkamu Adeb, MD at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
  • Yocabel Gorfu, MD at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
  • Kassa Darge, MD, PhD at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia





CT Parent Brochure in Bulgarian

CT Protocols in Bulgarian

With thanks to:

  • Jenia Vassileva, PhD, Associate Professor, Head of Radiation Protection at Medical Exposure Section, National Center of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia Bulgaria
  • Desislava Kostova – Lefterova, PhD student working on Optimization of Pediatric examinations

Mandarin Chinese

Click here for the Pause and Pulse Contrast Enema brochure

Click here for the Pause and Pulse VCUG brochure

Click here for the Pause and Pulse UGI brochure

Thank you to volunteers:

  • Wen-Hua, Liang, Graduate student of Peking Union Medical College Hospital
  • Wen-Bin, Mou, Physicist, Department of Radiology, Peking UnionMedical College Hospital
  • Jing-Jing, Lu, Attending physician, Associate Professor, Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital

Traditional Chinese

With appreciation to Volunteers:

Chien-Chuan Chen, MSYi-Shuan Hwang, MS
Ho-Ling Liu, PhD, DABR
Hui-Yu Tsai, PhD
Chao-Jan Wang, MD


Belofte in het Nederlands

With thanks to:
Tom Clarijs Expert Medical Applications, Brussels, Belgium
Nanko deGraaf, MD at Erasmus MC, Rotterdam Area, Netherlands
Marion Smits, MD, PhD, at Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Netherlands


CT Protocol Worksheet

Translations courtesy of the Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists



Image Gently – Schonende Bildgebung

Anleitung zur Entwicklung von pädiatrischen CT-Protokollen

With thanks to:

Richard Fotter, MD, Professor and Chairman -Department of Radiology, Head Division of Pediatric Radiology
Medical University Graz – Austria
Peter Brader, MD, Division of Pediatric Radiology
Department of Radiology, Medical University Graz – Austria
Karin Trimmel, RT, Staff at University of Applied Science Wiener Neustadt – Austria



Thanks to translators:

  • Harris L. Cohen, MD
  • Sandra W. Cohen, MD
  • Rabbi Shai Finklestein
  • Diana Gaitini, MD
  • Pearl Herskovitz, MD
  • Jeffrey Jacobson, MD
  • Pinchas Lebensart, MD
  • Michalle Soudack-Ben Nun


Fluoroscopia – Cisto Uretrografia Minzionale (CUM)
Fluoroscopia – Clisma Opaco
Fluoroscopia – Esame contrastografico di Esofago, Stomaco e Duodeno (ESD) + Esame contrastografico di Stomaco e Duodeno + transito intestinale (ESD + TI)

With Thanks to the Italian Translation Group:

Per Federazione Italiana Collegi Professionali Tecnici Sanitari di Radiologia Medica

  • Marco A. CICCONE, TSRM
  • Jacopo NEGRI, TSRM

Per Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica

  • Luca MORO, Fisico Sanitario
  • Giampiero Tosi, Fisico Sanitario
  • Vittorio Cannatà, Fisico Sanitario
  • ssa Daniela D’Ambrosio, Fisico Sanitario
  • ssa Viviana Fanti, PhD, Fisico Sanitario


What Parents Should Know about CT Scans for Children (2-pages)

What Parents should know about Medical Radiation Safety (8-pages)

Thanks to volunteers:

  • Mari Hayata, MD
  • Keiichi Akahane, PhD
  • Yoshiya Shimada, PhD



Thanks to volunteer translators:

  • Myung-Joon Kim, M.D.
  • Mi-Jung Lee, M.D.



Translations courtesy of Dr. Sylwia Pysklak



Why should I pledge? Translation in Portuguese.

Image Gently FAQs translation in Portuguese.

With thanks to:

  • Gabriela Spilberg, MD
  • Marcia Komlos, MD
  • Rosana Souza Rodrigues
  • Flavia Fajardo, MD



Click here to download the 8 page Parent Brochure in Russian

With thanks to:

  • Andrew V. Poliakov, PhD, Radiology and Neurological Surgery, Seattle Children’s Hospital
  • Sergey Abeshaus, MD, International Fellow, Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Seattle Children’s Hospital
  • Igor Gurvits, Radiology Informatics, Seattle Children’s Hospital



Image Gently – Imágenes Diagnósticas con Delicadeza

2 página folleto sobre las TC para niños

8 página folleto sobre seguridad radiológica pediátrica


Promesa en español

IAEA – Radiation Protection for Patients Website

en Espanol

Gracias a:

  • Sr. Paul Durand
  • Diego Jaramillo, MD
  • Jeanette Perez-Rosello, MD



Thanks to volunteer translators:

  • Panruethai Trinavarat, MD
  • Petcharleeya Suwanpradit, MSc
  • Somjai Wangsuphachart, MD



Image Gently – Koruyarak Görüntüleyelim

Click here for recommended protocols.

Lütfen yukaridaki brosürleri bilgisayariniza yükleyip anne-babalar ve meslektasariniz ile paylasin. (Download these brochures and share with parents and colleagues.)

Tesekkür ederiz: (With appreciation)

  • Izlem Izbudak, MD
  • Arzu Kovanlikaya, MD
  • Zeynep Yazici, MD